نکات مهم در تنظیم قرارداد اجاره

نکاتی که در هنگام تنظیم قرارد اجاره می بایست به آنها توجه نمایید:

اجاره، قراردادی است که بر طبق آن فردی که موجر نامیده می‌شود، خانه یا آپارتمان یا مغازه خود را به فرد دیگری که مستاجر نام دارد، برای مدت معین و در ازای اجاره ‌بها یا کرایه، به اجاره واگذار می‌کند.

انواع اجاره
1-اجاره خانه و آپارتمان مسکونی؛ در این نوع اجاره، مستاجر برای سکونت خود و افراد خانواده، خانه یا واحد آپارتمانی را معمولا برای یک سال اجاره می‌کند. موجر معمولاا مبلغی به عنوان پول پیش یا ودیعه، از مستاجر دریافت می‌کند و مبلغی نیز ماهانه به عنوان اجاره‌بها تعیین می‌شود.
2- اجاره مغازه و محل کسب؛ گاهی مستاجر برای اشتغال به کسب مانند طلافروشی، سوپرمارکت، خیاطی یا مغازه لوازم الکتریکی، مغازه‌ای را اجاره می‌کند. در این نوعع اجاره‌ها، موجر معمولا مبلغی به عنوان سر قفلی دریافت می‌کند.

شرایط اجاره
1-موجر باید مالک خانه یا آپارتمان یا مغازه باشد؛ بنابراین کسی غیر از مالک یا وکیل او نمی‌تواند ملکی را به اجاره دهد. مستاجر هم می‌تواند محلی را که اجاره کرده است، بهه دیگری اجاره بدهد، مگر اینکه در قرارداد اجاره این حق از او سلب شده باشد.
2-مدت اجاره باید معین باشد؛ اگر در قرار داد اجاره مدتی معین نشود (مثلا یک سال یا دو سال یا چند ماه) اجاره باطل است و هیچ اثری ندارد. مدت اجاره معمولا یک سالل تعیین می‌شود.

3-موجر و مستاجر باید بالغ و عاقل باشند؛ بنابراین کودکان غیربالغ و افراد دیوانه نمی‌توانند ملک را به اجاره بدهند یا ملکی را اجاره کنند. قیم این افراد می‌تواند از جانب آنها اجاره کند یا اجاره بدهد.

4-اجاره کتبی؛ طبق قانون روابط موجر و مستاجر مصوب سال ۱۳۷۶، قرارداد اجاره باید به صورت کتبی تنظیم شود و دو نفر شاهد نیز زیر آن را امضا کنند همچنین این قرارداد باید در دو نسخه تنظیم شود تا دو طرف بتوانند از امتیازات قانون روابط موجر و مستاجر سال 1376 بهره‌مند شوند. اگر طرفین (موجر و مستاجر) قرارداد کتبی تنظیم نکنند با مشکلات فراوانی مواجه می‌شوند که باعث می‌شود ماه‌ها و شاید سال‌ها در راهروهای دادگستری سرگردان شوند.

قرارداد یعنی پیش بینی آینده و قرارداد خوب آن است که طرفین تمامی زوایای رابطه یی را که می خواهند ایجاد کنند یا به آن خاتمه بدهند، پیشاپیش مشخص کرده باشند. متاسفانه هنگام عقد قرارداد هیچ علاقه یی نداریم که از راهنمایی و دانش اشخاص آگاه در انعقاد قرارداد استفاده کنیم یا دست کم خودمان چندان زحمت نمی کشیم تا با آینده نگری قراردادی را منعقد کنیم.

دقت در تنظیم قرارداد اجاره
با توجه به اینکه قوانین مختلفی در مورد اجاره (به ویژه اجاره محل کسب و تجارت) وجود دارد، موجران و مستاجران حتما باید از وکلا و مشاوران حقوقی یا حقوقدانان درر تنظیم قرارداد اجاره بهره‌مند شوند زیرا در صورت عدم دقت در تنظیم قرارداد و رعایت نکردن شرایط قانونی، ممکن است موجر دیگر قادر به تخلیه ملک خود نباشد یا برای تخلیه مجبور شود مبلغ کلانی سرقفلی به مستاجر بپردازد.
همچنین ممکن است مستاجر با عدم دقت در تنظیم قرارداد، حق سرقفلی خود را از دست بدهد و ضرر جبران ناشدنی بر او وارد شود.
نکته‌ای که باید مورد توجه قرار گیرد، این است که همواره قراردادهای اجاره خود را با امضای دو شاهد تنظیم کنید.
در غیر این صورت از مزایای قانون روابط موجر و مستاجر مصوب سال 13766 (تخلیه فوری ملک) بهره‌مند نخواهید شد.

منبع :

جام جم سرا

مطالب مرتبط

  • 94
    در این مبحث به بررسی عقد اجاره و حقوق و تكالیف موجر و مستاجر میپردازیم: تقریبا اكثر افراد جامعه با اجاره و اجاره نشینی آشنا هستند و یا حداقل یك بار خود موجر یا مستاجر بوده اند بویژه در شهرهای بزرگ به علت گرانی مسكن بیشتر افراد امكان تهیه مسكن…
  • 93
    سوال : سلام خسته نباشید سوالی داشتم در مورد این که اگر مستاجر مسکونی با قرارداد یکساله اجاره آپارتمان خود را سه ماه از ابتدای قرارداد خود تاکنون پرداخت نکند مالک میتواند از طریق قضایی برای وی حکم تخلیه بگیرد اگر بعد از شکواییه قضایی مستاجر ملزم به پرداخت اجاره…
  • 89
    ممکن است شما هم در اطرافیان خود افرادی را دیده باشید که به علت بی دقتی در تنظیم قرارداد و گاهی جابه جایی یک بند یا کلمه در قرارداد ضررهای بسیاری کردند مثلا صاحبخانه پس از اتمام دوره ی قرارداد ودیعه را پس نداده و علاوه بر آن برای روزهایی…
  • 80
    در این مطلب به بررسی شرایط فسخ قرارداد اجاره خواهیم پرداخت الف : فسخ قرارداد از سوی مستاجر -معمولا در قراردادهای اجاره این شرط وجود دارد كه مستاجر در صورتی كه مایل به فسخ و بر هم زدن اجاره باشد یك ماه قبل از بر هم زدن اجاره به موجر…
  • 79
     دیگر سالهاست زمان آن گذشته که در دفتر کار خود بنشینید تا مشتری به سراغ شما بیاید . در بازار پر رقابت امروز که حتی نانوایی ها  که روزگاری مجبور بودید در صف های طولانی آنها نوبت بگیرید هم به فکرراه هایی برای جذب مشتری هستند ، چاره ای نیست…

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