انتقال مسکن غير بدون اجازه مالک

در این مطلب قصد داریم به این پرسش که آیا انتقال مسکن غیر بدون اجازه مالک درست است یا خیر پاسخ بدهیم.

گاهي اوقات در جامعه اشخاص سودجو با سوء استفاده از موقعيت هايي که برايشان پيش مي آيد و يا شرايطي که به علت عدم آگاهي از قانون براي آنان به وجود مي آيد مبادرت به انتقال اموال منقول يا غيرمنقول ديگران مي کنند که اين عمل از نظر قانون جرم و مرتکب آن به مجازات هاي سنگيني محکوم مي شود. در اين مقاله به بررسي اين عمل مجرمانه، مسئوليت مرتکبان آن به هنگام وقوع اين جرايم مي پردازيم.

شرح عمل مجرمانه:

به موجب ماده يک قانون راجع به انتقال مال غير مصوب فروردين ۱۳٠۸ کسي که مال غير را با علم به اينکه مال غير است، به نحوي از انحاء عيناً يا منفعتاً بدون مجوز قانوني به ديگري منتقل کند کلاهبردار محسوب و به مجازات کلاهبرداري محکوم مي گردد.

۱- بايد توجه داشت که معامله کننده بايد عالم به اين امر باشد که مسکن يا ملک مورد معامله متعلق به غير است و اثبات اين امر با دادستان و شاکي خصوصي است که بايد دلايل آن را به دادگاه ارائه دهند. پس اگر شخصي بدون اطلاع از اينکه آپارتمان يا ملک متعلق به ديگري است آن را معامله کرده باشد عمل او کلاهبرداري محسوب نمي شود و نمي توان او را مجازات کرد. اما اين بدان معنا نيست که عمل او از حيث حقوقي صحيح است بلکه از نظر حقوقي او اصطلاحاً معامله فضولي انجام داده است. برابر ماده ۲۴۷ قانون مدني معامله نسبت به مال غير جز به عنوان ولايت يا وصايت يا وکالت نافذ نيست حتي اگر صاحب مال باطناً راضي باشد ولي اگر مالک يا قائم مقام او (مانند وارث مالک) پس از انجام معامله توسط غير، آن را اجاره کند در اين صورت معامله صحيح و نافذ مي شود. پس آنچه که عمل مجرمانه يعني فروش مال غير را از معامله فضولي متمايز مي کند، همان سوء نيت فروشنده است که با عمل خود مي خواهد به مالک ضرر برساند و خود يا فرد موردنظر او به صورت نامشروع صاحب مال شوند.

۲- فرقي نمي کند که فروشنده مال غير، عين آپارتمان يا ملکي را به ديگري منتقل کند يا منفعت آن را براي مثال اگر آقاي احمدي آپارتمان متعلق به آقاي بهزادي را بدون رضايت او به مدت يک سال به شرکت تجاري الف اجاره دهد مرتکب کلاهبرداري شده است.

شخصي مستاجر يک واحد تجاري است و آن را در سال ۱۳۶٠ اجاره کرده است، در اجاره نامه قيد شده است که او حق انتقال به غير ندارد ولي مستاجر آن را در سال ۱۳۸۶به غير منتقل مي کند آيا عمل او که با علم و آگاهي بوده کلاهبرداري است؟

گرچه در مقاله هاي مربوط به روابط موجر و مستاجر به طور مفصل به آن مي پردازيم ولي در پاسخ به اين پرسش بايد گفت: خير، زيرا به موجب قانون روابط موجر و مستاجر مصوب سال ۱۳۵۶ در صورت تخلف مستاجر و انتقال منافع به غير، با درخواست مالک، وي بايد عين مستاجره (مغازه) را تخليه کند و فقط مستحق دريافت نصف بهاي حق کسب و پيشه به قيمت روز خواهدبود.

شخصي مالک يک واحد آپارتمان است و براي اخذ وام آن را در رهن بانک قرار داده است آيا با فروش آپارتمان مرتکب کلاهبرداري مي شود؟

پاسخ: خير عمل او کلاهبرداري نيست زيرا عين مال حتي با به رهن گذاشتن آن به او تعلق دارد و هر مالکي حق دارد هرگونه تصرفي نسبت به عين مال خود به عمل بياورد اما مي بايست بانک به عنوان مرتهن قبل از خريد و فروش آپارتمان رضايت خود را اعلام نمايد و فروشنده (راهن) نمي تواند تصرفاتي کند که حقوق بانک (مرتهن) تضييع شود به هر حال در خريد و فروش آپارتمان چنانچه بانک رضايت خود را نسبت به معامله اعلام ننمايد چنين دعوايي در محکمه قابل طرح به نفع بانک خواهد بود. بنابراين عمل مالک آپارتمان (راهن) نه نسبت به بانک (مرتهن) و نه نسبت به خريدار کلاهبرداري نيست و اگر خريدار از در رهن بودن آپارتمان هنگام معامله آگاه باشد مسئله اي پيش نمي آيد و اگر بدون اطلاع از در رهن بودن ملک آن را خريده باشد حق دارد تا فروشنده را ملزم به فک رهن کند. اما هنگامي که مالک با سند عادي (قولنامه، مبايعه نامه) آپارتمان را به ديگري مي فروشد و سپس سند رسمي را در رهن بانک قرار مي دهد مرتکب کلاهبرداري شده است و خريدار حق دارد از او شکايت کيفري کند.

اگر ملکي که بين چند نفر مشاع است و يک نفر از آنان تمام ملک را به ديگري منتقل کند مرتکب کلاهبرداري شده است؟

از نظر حقوقي انتقال ملک مشاع به شکل مفروز بدون موافقت ساير شرکا صحيح و نافذ نيست، ولي اگر مورد انتقال معادل سهم انتقال دهنده باشد از جهت اينکه سوءنيت نداشته فاقد جنبه کيفري است و اگر تمام ملک مشاع يا بيش از سهم خود را انتقال دهد و اين عمل همراه با سوء نيت باشد عقيده غالب آن است که اين شخص به عنوان کلاهبردار قابل تعقيب مي باشد.

آيا با گذشت شاکي خصوصي کلاهبردار از مجازات معاف مي شود؟

جرم فروش مال غير از جمله جرايم غيرقابل گذشت مي باشد و حتي با رضايت مالباخته متهم تعقيب و به کيفر خواهد رسيد ولي با گذشت شاکي دادگاه مي تواند در مجازات متهم تخفيف قايل شود و ميزان جزاي نقدي را کاهش دهد ولي در مورد حبس نمي تواند به کمتر از يک سال حکم صادر کند و در مورد رد مال با توجه به رضايت مالباخته اين امر موضوعاً منتفي مي شود.

شخصي که مال غير را از انتقال دهنده (فروشنده) خريداري کرده و مال به او انتقال داده مي شود آيا مسئوليتي دارد؟

اگر انتقال گيرنده (خريدار) درحين انجام معامله به عدم مالکيت طرف آگاه باشدکلاهبردار محسوب مي شود. حتي اگر مالک ملک از وقوع معامله مطلع شود و پس از اطلاع اظهارنامه اي مشتمل بر اعلام مالکيت خود براي خريدار نفرستد معاون جرم محسوب مي شود زيرا چه بسا مالک با تباني با فروشنده شرايط را براي کلاهبرداري از خريداري که از جريان آگاه نبوده فراهم آورد.

منبع :magiran.com

مطالب مرتبط

  • 86
    اجازه بدهید که تجربه ی چندین ساله مان را با شما شریک شویم. شاید برایتان جالب باشد که بدانید در دوره ی اخیر با توجه به تغییرات قابل ملاحظه ای که در سبک زندگی مان رخ داده است و همه چیز بسیار سریع و ماشینی شده است زمان تاثیر گذاری…
  • 85
    اجازه بدهید که تجربه ی چندین ساله مان را با شما شریک شویم. شاید برایتان جالب باشد که بدانید در دوره ی اخیر با توجه به تغییرات قابل ملاحظه ای که در سبک زندگی مان رخ داده است و همه چیز بسیار سریع و ماشینی شده است زمان تاثیر گذاری…
  • 84
    کسانی که قصد خرید یا اجاره ملکی را دارند باید چه نکاتی را رعایت کنند تا احتمال کلاهبرداری کاهش پیدا کند؟  1 - از اعتماد بیجا جداً پرهیز نموده حتی به نزدیکترین افراد هم اعتماد نکنید و خودتان شخصاً یا به کمک وکیل بررسیهای کافی را انجام دهید چه بسا…
  • 81
    برای توضیح این بحث که صد البته بسیار گسترده هم می باشد، ابتدا با پرسش یک مشاور که به تازگی فعالیت خود را در این صنف آغاز کرده شروع می کنیم. پرسش : به مدت دو ماه است در صنف مشاورین املاک فعال هستم ولی درآمدی ندارم. برای رسیدن به…
  • 81
    با سلام. آقای هراتی چه مدتیست که در لایف سازه فعالیت خود را آغاز کرده اید و نظرتان درباره این حرفه چیست؟ سلام خدمت شما. در سال 1389 مقدمات تاسیس لایف سازه را آغاز کردیم و به طور رسمی از فروردین 1390 شروع به کار و دعوت به همکاری را…

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